History

A Kingham time line

Date Record/event
c200 BC-350 AD A Romano-British settlement exists on the western side of Kingham Hill
c600 A hamlet close to the river Evenlode is named after a local chieftain Caega
1086 Domesday Book, Lord of the Manor – Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, 10 hides, 19 villeins, 4 serfs, 4 plough teams, 1 mill, population circa 180
1136 Rector were appointed by Walden Abbey from this date until the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Thirteenth Century
1240 Philip de Mandeville dies and over-lordship of Kingham split three ways to his daughters, Clementia, Juliana and Agnes (who married Thomas de Hunte of Chadlington).
1253 First recorded name for a Rector of Kingham church – Gulfridus de Wulward
1254 Clementia’s share including the manor house passes to Walter de Grey
1279 100 Year Rolls, Lord of the Manor now Ralph de Chasteleyn, 14 hides, 15 freemen, 24 villeins, no serfs, I mill, 2 blacksmiths, 44 families, population circa 240. Ralph probably rebuilds the church in the early 14th century.
Fourteenth Century
1313 Ralph de Chasteleyn appointed Knight of the Shire for Oxfordshire and attends Parliament, he also probably starts construction of the church around this time
1336 Ralph de Chasteleyn dies in a fight with the de Noyers of Churchill, his son Gilbert succeeds to the lordship and crenellates the manor house
1348 The Black Death
1360 Gilbert de Chateleyn engages in sheep farming as there were fewer labourers and mortgages the manor and his third of the over-lordship, later selling it to Alice Perrers the King’s mistress.
1377 On the death of the King, Alice stripped of her possessions
1380 The manor and one-third of the over-lordship sold to William de Wykeham who uses it to endow New College, Oxford
Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
1403 Edmund Earl of Stafford holds one of the other two over-lordships through marriage to his wife Ann (a member of the Beaufo family)
c1500 First record of Keene family living in Kingham (John Kyne) the family remained an integral part of Kingham life until at least 1944, many of them stonemasons
1544 The date of the first three recorded wills in the Kingham collection, all provide for some income to the church, witnessed by Stephen Farrand (Rector 1535-55)
Seventeenth century
1603-6 Mortuary fees case at the Oxford Ecclesiastical Court (George Morecroft the Rector versus Isabel Harris)
1643 Civil War battle of the Evenlode takes place close to Kingham
1659-74 Warden Michael Woodward of New College makes several visits to Kingham to oversee the college estate. The other two over-lordships were held by Thomas Ramsden of Yorkshire and Sir Rowland Lacy of Charlbury (possibly the eventual inheritor of Agnes share of the over-lordship)
1688 The church chancel was rebuilt and a new Kingham Rectory was built by William Dowdeswell
Eighteenth Century
1710 Ramsden’s manorial property in Kingham sold by William Horton of Yorkshire
1717 First school in the village
1789 William Smith of Churchill (of geology fame) surveys Kingham fields for a new rating system
1797 Baptist meeting house in West End approved by the Bishop of Oxford
Nineteenth Century
1842 Kingham Club established
1850 Kingham Enclosure Act passed. The over-lordships by now have devolved to two major land-owners, New College and the Rector, John Lockwood
1855 Railway station opened at Kingham along with the branch line to Chipping Norton
1862 Methodist Chapel established
1869 New College cedes the village green to Kingham following enclosure
c1870 Langston Arms built and Caleb Lainchbury establishes a yard in Kingham
1881 Caleb Lainchbury moves to Kingham and the Lainchbury business takes off
1885 Charles Baring Young starts construction of Kingham Hill School which opens in 1886
1890s Kingham Swifts soccer team formed, renamed All Blacks in 1928
Twentieth Century
1910 Baring Young funds the building of the village hall
1912 New village school built
1913 William Warde Fowler publishes Kingham Old and New
1914-18 Nine Kingham residents die in the First World War
1920 First homes built in New Road area
1922 Manor house demolished
1941 Two Kingham residents die this year in the Second World War
1943 The area around Kingham becomes the largest battlefield ammunition storage site in the UK (8th US Airforce Depot)
1964 Chipping Norton branch line closed
1982 Last livestock market held at Kingham
1987 Lainchbury yard closes

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